SHIMS2 2016-2017, a household-based national survey under the multicountry PHIA Project, was conducted between August 2016 and March 2017 to measure the status of Eswatini’s national HIV response. SHIMS2 offered home-based testing and counseling (HBTC) with return of results and collected information about uptake of HIV care and treatment services. This survey is the second in Eswatini to measure national HIV incidence, viral load suppression (VLS) prevalence, CD4 count distribution, and transmitted HIV drug resistance. It is the first to measure pediatric HIV prevalence and presence of ARV drugs in blood. The survey also collected information on selected behaviors associated with HIV acquisition and transmission, and common HIV co-morbidities and other health conditions.